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The Heart of the Andes, by Frederick Edwin Church


Heart of the Andes is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum

Born in Hartford, Connecticut in 1926, Frederick Edwin Church was a famous American landscape painter whose vision and talent contribute to his place within the pantheon of Hudson Valley School of Art painters. Known for painting large-scale landscape paintings, Church’s masterpieces typically contained dramatic settings which are evident in his paintings The Parthenon, Twilight in the Wilderness, or Our Banner in the Sky. These famous paintings often featured beautiful scenic mountains, waterfalls, or sunsets, which gave each of his works a different vibe and feeling, however all of these paintings pale in comparison to The Heart of the Andes.

Church’s most famed piece of work, The Heart of the Andes, was painted in 1859 and its medium is oil on canvas. This scenic landscape painting is about 5′ 6″ x 9′ 11″ and displays the beauty and grandeur of the South American Mountain range.[1] While some of Church’s paintings feature wide brushstrokes with sweeping colors, The Heart of the Andes is a more intricately detailed piece, as the entire painting is incredibly realistic. This painting features a waterfall scene in front of the majestic Andes Mountains with a small, almost unnoticeable village at the foot of the mountains. This painting’s color scheme seems to consist of mainly earthy tones as it is a realistic landscape painting, however it also features a few pops of color which draws the onlooker’s eyes to different points. One of these color pops would be the bright red shirt and the blue jacket of two people standing in front of a cross, which guides our attention to the small religious symbol, while another would be the red and blue flowers located on the lower right side of the painting which allows our eyes to fall upon the extremely detailed foreground.

By using small pops of color Church is able to draw onlooker’s focus into certain parts of his painting, and he does this intentionally as a way to get certain messages across. This particular painting seems to play with the theme of religion as it features a cross, which is either a grave or shrine. In addition to this small symbol of Christianity, Church’s painting depicts the beauty of nature when it is untouched by man, and because of this it pays tribute to God’s awesome creation. This painting, aside from a small town nestled in the center and the two people kneeling by the cross, is free of human influence and therefore displays nature in its raw form. That being said, while there are two people featured in this piece of artwork, they obviously are not the focal point of this piece as they are minuscule in comparison to the grand natural features that surround them. In this way, Church demonstrates that while people exist and are important, we pale in comparison to God’s handiwork.

In addition to depicting religious undertones, Church’s painting also presents a nationalistic view of the Americas. By painting the beauty that surrounds anyone lucky enough to reside in either of the New World, Church is able to proudly show off the awesomeness of this “new” land. This almost 10 foot long painting showed the impressive dramatic landscapes that made up the America’s, and because of this many who look upon Church’s painting feel a sense of pride in the Americas as they look on in awe at the natural beauty of their land.

The Heart of the Andes makes onlookers feel as if they are gazing out a window onto this magnificent scene, and because of this, this piece of art gives off a peaceful and serene vibe. The light reflecting off the water gives the appearance of a new day beginning and fills with me a hopeful feeling, and because of this I can see the allure this of this painting and why it is arguably Church’s most famous piece. Members of the Hudson Valley School of Art depicted the beauty of the world around them with their unique paintings, and Frederick Edwin Church’s Heart of the Andes perfectly displays these ideals.

– Debbie Boerke

[1] “Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900), Birthday May 4 – Wolf Fine Art – Colorado Springs.” Wolf Fine Art Colorado Springs RSS. 2012. Accessed November 01, 2016.

Titan’s Goblet, by Thomas Cole

Henry David Thoreau once said, “This world is but a canvas to our imagination.” An American artist known for his historical landscape paintings, Thomas Cole, was seen as the founder of the Hudson River School, an art movement that prospered in the middle of the 19th century. Cole’s artwork is well known for its romantic representation of the American wilderness. Possibly the most mysterious of Cole’s metaphorical or fictional landscape scenes was The Titan’s Goblet which was painted in 1833. Often times, Cole would supply writing to support his paintings; however, he decided not to comment on this piece which left his intentions open for debate.

According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Titans Goblet is a work that “defies full explanation.”[1] Many have called this work a picture within a picture and a landscape within a landscape: the goblet sits on traditional terrain, but its occupants reside along the rim in their very own world. The entire brim is slathered in vegetation, separated by only two small buildings, an Italian palace, and a Geek temple. The deep waters are spotted with sailing boats and as it leaks onto the ground underneath, grass and a more fundamental civilization spring up.

Theophilus Stringfellow, Jr. described it as a “self-contained, microcosmic human world in the midst of vast nature,” while John M. Falconer connected the “monumental stem of the goblet to the trunk of the Norse world tree; he likened the cup to the ramifying branches . . . Which spread out and hold between them an ocean dotted with sails, surrounded by dense forests and plains.”[2]

As previously mentioned, various theories and themes have been argued throughout the years on what Coles true intentions are in The Titan’s Goblet. Around the 1880s, one understanding linked the goblet to the world tree and particularly to the Norse mythology’s very own Yggdrasil. A 1904 catalog carried out this theory, saying that “the spiritual idea in the center of the painting, conveying the beautiful Norse theory that life and the world is but a tree with ramifying branches, is carefully carried out by the painter”[3]. However, it is not evident that Cole would have been accustomed to this notion, and detractor Elwood Parry proposed that the probability to any legendary tree is restricted to the equivalence of the goblet’s stem to a tree trunk. With that being said, nothing about the cup compares to roots or branches.

Another hypothesis of this work advocates that the goblet’s supremacy in the picture might indicate a cosmological explanation. Elwood Parry contemplates but declines a correlation with the outside panels of the Garden of Earthly Delights, by Hieronymus Bosch, which are typically taken to represent Earth’s creation. Both of the pictures illustrate a restrained world but use land and water in contradicting fractions. The Goblet provides neither iconography nor an engraving that would declare a theological exposition of the painting. Moreover, the artist has positioned the goblet far off from the heart of the canvas, therefore, minimizing its symbolic importance.

A companion and biographer of Thomas Cole, Louis Legrand Noble was highly relied on to have some insight or explanation on the work. However, according to his comments, there is no statement for any of these ideas. He wrote,

“There [the goblet] stands, rather reposes upon its shaft, a tower-like mossy
structure, light as a bubble, and yet a section of a substantial globe. As the eye circles
its wide rolling brim, a circumference of many miles, it finds itself in fairy land; in
accordance though with nature on her broadest scale… Tourists might travel in the
countries of this imperial ring, and trace their fancies on many a romantic page.
Here steeped in the golden splendors of a summer sunset, is a little sea from Greece,
or Holy Land, with Greek and Syrian life, Greek and Syrian nature looking out upon
its quiet waters.”[4]

So, after witnessing and learning about the various types of theories that were presented for Thomas Cole’s The Titan’s Goblet, one can clearly gather that it has its own unique meaning for each person that may come across it whether it be due to religion, others’ opinions, or ones own thoughts. Although researchers believed that a good friend and columnist of Thomas Cole such as Noble would have some positive insight toward the subject, his answer just goes to show that everyone has their own perspective toward certain questions.

  • Connor Kearney, Marist College

[1] “Thomas Cole | The Titan’s Goblet | The Met.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art, I.e. The Met Museum. Accessed October 25, 2016.

[2] “Thomas Cole | The Titan’s Goblet | The Met.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art, I.e. The Met Museum. Accessed October 25, 2016.

[3] Perry, Elwood C. “Thomas Cole’s ‘The Titan’s Goblet’: A Reinterpretation.” 1971. Accessed November 1, 2016.

[4] Perry, Elwood C. “Thomas Cole’s ‘The Titan’s Goblet’: A Reinterpretation.” 1971. Accessed November 1, 2016.